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7th century

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In the 7th century, from 601 to 700, the position of the Papacy was strengthened in Rome. Emperor Phocas declared the Pope as head of all churches, and gave Santa Maria ad MartyresPantheon to the Church.

During this century, there was a considerable immigration of Eastern clerics; so many that Greek became the dominant language in the Church. This did not improve the relationship between local authorities and Constantinople. Several conflicts arose between East and West, and in 653 Pope Martin I was deported to Crimea, where he died. In 663 Emperor Constans II visited Rome, where he stripped the city of metals.


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